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Rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil combination in patients with interstitial lung disease (EVER-ILD)
PDPI Sulawesi Selatan & Utara, 26 Mei 2023 04:51:48

Julie Mankikian, Agnès Caille, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Marie-Sara Agier, Julien Bermudez, Philippe Bonniaud, Raphael Borie, Pierre-Yves Brillet, Jacques Cadranel, Isabelle Court-Fortune, Bruno Crestani, Marie-Pierre Debray, Emmanuel Gomez, Anne Gondouin, Sandrine Hirschi-Santelmo, Dominique Israel-Biet, Stéphane Jouneau, Karine Juvin, Julie Leger, Mallorie Kerjouan, Charles-Hugo Marquette, Jean-Marc Naccache, Hilario Nunes, Laurent Plantier, Grégoire Prevot, Sébastien Quetant, Julie Traclet, Victor Valentin, Yurdagul Uzunhan, Lidwine Wémeau-Stervinou, Theodora Bejan-Angoulvant, Vincent Cottin, Sylvain Marchand-Adam on behalf of the EVER-ILD investigators and the OrphaLung network
European Respiratory Journal 2023; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.02071-2022


Background Standard of care for interstitial lung disease (ILD) with a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern proposes mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as one of the first step therapies while rituximab is used as rescue therapy.

Methods In a randomised, double blind, two-parallel group, placebo-controlled trial (NCT02990286), patients with connective tissue disease-associated ILD or idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (with or without autoimmune feature) and a NSIP pattern (defined on NSIP pathological pattern or on integration of clinico-biological data and a NSIP-like HRCT pattern) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive rituximab (1000mg) or placebo on day 1 and day 15 in addition to MMF (2g daily) for six months. The primary endpoint was the change in percent of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) from baseline to 6months analysed by a linear mixed model for repeated measures analysis. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) up to 6months and safety.

Findings Between January 2017 and January 2019, 122 randomised patients received at least one dose of rituximab (n=63) or placebo (n=59). The least-squares mean change from baseline to 6months in FVC (% predicted) was +1.60 (se 1.13) in the rituximab+MMF group and −2.01 (se 1.17) in the placebo+MMF group (between-group difference, 3.60 [95% CI 0.41 to 6.80]; p=0.0273). PFS was better in the rituximab+MMF group (crude HR 0.47 [95%CI 0.23 to 0.96]; p=0.03). Serious adverse events occurred in 26 patients of the rituximab+MMF group (41%) and in 23 of the placebo+MMF group (39%). Nine infections were reported in the rituximab+MMF group (five bacterial infections, 3 viral infections, 1 other) and four bacterial infections in the placebo+MMF group.

Interpretation Combination of rituximab and MMF was superior to MMF alone in patients with ILD and a NSIP pattern. The use of this combination must consider the risk of viral infection.

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